Various disasters either occurring naturally or by human carelessness affect the earth causing a lot of deaths and damage to property as well as mankind. These disasters may be created by water, wind, land, snow, land, or many more factors. Here is a list of some of the most powerful types of natural disasters.
Types of Natural Disasters
Usually caused because of heavy rains, melting of glaciers or snow, and flash floods; a flood is basically an overflow of water submerging the entire region and causing damage to life and property. Excessive flood destroys cities, breaks dams and houses, and buildings, pull up plants and trees, and washes away everything crossing their way.
Occurring anytime, anywhere, these floods may stop after minutes, hours, or even sometimes last for some days. Considered a major disaster for the US, floods were even useful and reliable in ancient times for various communities. Though the flood is unpredictable and uncontrollable but still as security against floods, flood insurance is also present.
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2. Volcanic eruption
A wide opening on earth with a hole called a volcanic crater contains hot rocks in liquid form of glowing orange appearance called magma is a volcano. When this hot magma has an extremely high temperature of about 1250 degrees Celsius comes out with heat, gases, lightning, and a high sound from the volcano at the time of its explosion is called lava.
The release of toxic gases, rocks, heat, ashes, and lava at the time of volcanic eruption causes a great loss of life and property. Suffocation, burns, accidents, injuries, respiratory problems, infections, and many more problems are enough to take the lives of people at that time.
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The extreme shortage of water in any region for a long time is drought. Lasting from days, months to even years, a drought is a major disaster in the US. Mainly caused by increasing temperature or warmer climate, low or no rainfall, drought can destroy crops, agriculture, human life, food availability, and vegetation of any region.
The most dangerous one was from 1969-1980 in Africa in which around 150 million people lost their lives. During droughts, the water in water bodies reduces rapidly or dries, the soil gets dried and loses its moisture and plants, and crops get damaged in lack of irrigation. As water is the main necessity of life for humans, animals as well as plants but its shortage can gradually take the form of drought and can cause millions of deaths ruining the area.
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The movement of the plates inside the earth’s crust results in the break of the crust releasing energy as waves and shaking the earth which is called an earthquake. In 1960 on 22 May, Chile faced an earthquake and that earthquake is still regarded as the longest earthquake ever with a magnitude of 9.5. Causing massive destruction like the breaking of roads, and bridges and breakage and destruction of infrastructure, Earthquakes are massive types of natural disasters.
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5. Tropical cyclone
A thunderstorm in which winds of low-pressure flow in a circular manner either clockwise or anticlockwise results in heavy rains and winds. Though the size is enormous the pressure at the center is low and has an almost 1000 km diameter. Similar to bundles of clouds of storms, tropical cyclones get created overheated tropical water. Two categories of cyclones present namely tropical cyclones and temperate cyclones.
Burning of fire in any land covered with vegetation, plants, or bushes burning the entire area is called wildfire. Also acknowledged as a forest fire, bush fire, wildland fire, or rural fire; it just gets started by burning of dry leaves on the reaction of heat or excessive temperature and air.
Though wildfires are mostly natural in the US nearly 90% of the incidents of wildfire are artificially created by the carelessness of man. With the release of harmful gases into the atmosphere, wildfires cause a lot of air pollution and also destroy the habitat of various plants, animals as well as tribal people.
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The word hurricane was named after a god of winds, fire, and storm named Huracan who had a great religious value among Mayans. Derived from the God Huracan respect Occurring mostly in the Tropical Area, Hurricane is a situation of powerful, large, and curved storm resulting in fast blowing winds and heavy precipitation.
Also renowned as cyclone, typhoon, or tropical storm; its power and effects lower while reaching the ground. Spinning in a circular form creates an eye-like structure at the center, the hurricane is very disastrous when entering the land’s surface. With winds blowing at a speed of 74 mph, the hurricane is enough to damage trees, infrastructure as well as residential areas.
When various ground movements occur in the form of falling of rocks, debris, or mudflows, then it is acknowledged as a natural disaster named landslides or landslip. Mostly occurred due to instability in the slope of land, gravity, deforestation, urbanization, shifting cultivation, earthquakes, massive rainfall, or mining activities; landslides create great damage to property and life.
The post effects of landslides include broken electricity, water, gas, and sewage lines which further lead to injury and illness. Not only earth is facing the problem of landslide but it is known that even in the solar system mainly on Mars and Venus landslide has occurred.
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The continuous snow snowstorms along with heavy winds at speed of almost 56 kilometers per hour are a disaster of a blizzard. With poor visibility at the time blizzard and a low temperature of about 20 degrees Fahrenheit, the problem of hypothermia is very common.
Also, the presence of snowfall is not essential as heavy winds blowing the snow already present on land can also cause a blizzard causing a situation of a ground blizzard. The falling of trees and poles and the disconnection of electricity, gas, and water pipes are common problems at this time. Traveling via foot or by vehicle at the time of a blizzard can be very risky so one should try to stay inside for safety.
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Being a cause of death of over 150 people each year, Avalanche is the rapid flow of snow from mountains or hills. During winters, when excessive snow gets collected on the mountains, slopes, or hills, then the snow falls from the slope causing Avalanche.
Having a massive weight of about 1 million tons, an Avalanche comes with a speed of 320 km per hour. After burying the persons in snow, an avalanche is really deadly. Also, excessive heat can lead to the melting of snow resulting in floods. Caused either naturally or by human activities, Avalanche destroys all the trees, plants, and humans in its way.
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These are the 10 most powerful types of natural disasters in the world.